The ethics of using transgenic animals
By Adrian Smith

The majority of these references have been kindly provided by members of the Comparative Medicine discussion list (CompMed) on the Internet, to whom l am extremely grateful.  Please report any errors or suggestions for additions to

These references are divided arbitrarily into:

1. References
2. Other sources, including journals, policy statements and videofilms


Andaeng M. & Aehrlund-Richter L. (1995): Embryokloning - accelererad utveckling i djurmodeller aktualiserar den humanetiska debatten. Den svenska Laekartidningen, 92(11): 1078-1086.
ANZCCART (1999). In the September 1999 newsletter from ANZCCART (Australian and New Zealand Council for the Care of Animals in Research and Teaching), there is an article entitled Ethical and Welfare Implications associated with Transgenic Animals. The newsletter may be downloaded here as a pdf file. You will need Acrobat Reader to read this file.
Bateson, P. (1986). When to experiment on animals. New Scientist 109(1496): 30-32.
Berkowitz D.B. (1990): The food safety of transgenic animals. Bio/Technol. 8:819
Boisvert D. P. & Porter D. G. (1993). Ethical Scoring Systems. In: Animal Welfare Conference Proceedings. (ed. N. E. Johnston), pp. 23-27. Clayton, Australia: Monash University.
Boisvert D. P. & Porter D. G. (1995). Ethical Scoring Systems. In: The World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences: Education, Research, Testing (ed. A. M. Goldberg & L. F. M. van Zutphen), pp 637-641. Alternative Methods in Toxicology and the Life Sciences Series - Vol. 11, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publishers, New York.
Dresser R. (1989). Developing standards in animal research review. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 194(9): 1184-1191.
Dresser R. (1990). Review Standards for Animal Research: A Closer Look. ILAR News 32(4): 2-7.
Fox M. (1986): On the genetic manipulation of animals: a response to pluhar. Betw. Spec. 2:51.
Fox M. (1988): Genetic engineering biotechnology: animal welfare and environmental concerns. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 20:83.
Fox M. (1992): Superpigs and Wondercorn: The Brave New World of Biotechnology and Where It All May Lead.  New York, Lyons & Burford. ISBN 1-55821-182-9.
Giraud R. (1994): Ethical considerations in the use of transgenic animals. Between the Species, Winter/Spring 1994:55.
Hallerman E.M. & Kapuscinski A.R. (1990): Transgenic fish and public policy: regulatory concerns. Fisheries 15:12.
Hallerman E.M. & Kapuscinski A.R. (1990): Transgenic fish and public policy: anticipating environmental impacts of transgenic fish. Fisheries 15:2.
Home Office, England (1994): Report of the Animal Procedures Committee for 1993. HMSO, London.
Hooper M.L. (1990): Genetically engineered animals: implication for human diseases. Biofuture January 1990:30.
Hubrecht R. (1995): Genetically modified animals, welfare and UK legislation. Animal Welfare 4:163-170.
Jones D.D. (1986): Legal and regulatory aspects of genetically engineered animals. Basic Life Sciences 37:273.
Krypsin-Sorensen I. (1991): The application of transgenic techniques to common domestic animals and fish. Scand. J. Lab. Anim. Sci. 18(3): 81-9.
Lehndahl U. & T÷rnell J. (1994): Transgena djur - djur med skradddarsydda gener. Den svenska Laekartidningen, 91(17), 1711-1717.
Mager D. (1989): Uncertainties about painless animals. Bioethics 3:226.
Mepham T.B. (1995): An ethical matrix for animal production. New Farmer & Grower Spring 1995, 14-15.
Mepham T.B., Combes R.D., Balls M., Barbieri O., Blokhuis H.J., Costa P., Crilly R.E., de Cock Buning T., Delpire V.C., O'Hare M.J., Houdebine L-M., van Kreijl C.F., van der Meer M., Reinhardt C.A., Wolf E. & van Zeller A-M. (1998): The use of transgenic animals in the European Union. Report and Recommendations of the 28th ECVAM Workshop. ATLA 26: 21-43.
Meyer O. (1993): Implications of animal welfare on toxicity testing. Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 12(6):516-21.
Moore C.J. & Mepham T.B. (1995): Transgenesis and animal welfare. ATLA 23(3): 380-397.
Morton, D.B. & Griffiths, P.H.M. (1985): Guidelines on the recognition of pain, distress and discomfort in experimental animals and a hypothesis for assessment. Veterinary Record 116, 431-436.
Morton, D.B. (1995): Recognition and assessment of adverse effects in animals. In Animals in Science Conference Proceedings: Perspective on their Use, Care and Welfare (ed. N. E. Johnston), pp 131-148. Clayton, Australia: Monash University.
Murphy C. (1988): The new genetics and the welfare of animals. New Scientist 10:20.

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